Financing forest conservation in Uganda
Heist, Miriam Van
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Bwindi was gazetted as a national park in 1991. Inadequate consultation with local people led to protest and resentment about diminished access to resources (Hamilton et al. 2000). To reconcile conservation and community needs, a range of often costly Integrated Conservation and Development (ICD) strategies were implemented, with support from international NGOs. Programs for sustainable agriculture and on-farm substitution were intended to reduce the demand for park resources while providing limited and controlled access to the forest (for bee-keeping and non-timber forest products); revenues from tourism would provide communities with direct benefits from the park. How successful these strategies have been in reducing threats to the forest or in improving local livelihoods is not yet clear.
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